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Linux Basic : Intro & Basic Command

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 Lecture PDF Download


Table of Contents

-         Installing Linux

-         What is Linux

-         Basic Commands


What is Linux

 Linux is UNIX based open-source Operating System, which was first developed by Linus Torvalds when he was student at University of Helsinki. In November 1991, version 0.02 was presented out to public and it was widely spread. Linux is mainly used for Workstation and personal computer.

Types of Linux


In general, we say there are 2 types of Linux. One is Debian type and the other is Red Hat type. Even though both are Linux but there are little differences. Debians are usually used for Desktop computers and Red Hats are usually used for Server computers. This doesnt mean that Debians are always used for Desktops and Red Hats are always used for Servers.


Account Privilege


  In Linux, accounts can be categorized into 3 types (Root/Sudo User/User). As Root User, user can do anything in the system. As Sudo User, he or she can borrow roots privilege and do stuff in the system. In usual state, he or she has users privilege. But when the user use sudo with the command, command can be activated with privilege of root. As for User, it is just user and can have its privilege only in its home directory.




  Each Files has Read/Write/Execute(RWX) permission for types of users. RWX permission can have value 0~7. With this value we could check whether each RWX permission is given to the specific type of users.



Basic Commands


[ Basic ]

# sudo

  The sudo (substitute user do) command allows a permitted user to execute a command as the superuser or another user, as specified by the security policy in the sudoers list.

# shutdown

 Shuts the system down.

# exit

 Exit from account

# pwd

 The command pwd (print working directory), prints the current working directory with full path name from terminal.


[ Browsing ]

# ls

  The command ls stands for (List Directory Contents), List the contents of the folder, be it file or folder, from which it runs.

 # cd

 Finally, the frequently used cd command stands for (change directory), it change the working directory to execute, copy, move write, read, etc. from terminal itself.

# mv

 The mv command moves a file from one location to another location.

# cp

  The copy stands for (Copy), it copies a file from one location to another location.


[ Handling Files ]

# vi / gedit

Edit or show the files contents

# cat

  The cat stands for (Concatenation). Concatenate (join) two or more plain file and/or print contents of a file on standard output.

  # tar

  The tar command is a Tape Archive is useful in creation of archive, in a number of file format and their extraction.

  # chmod

  The Linux chmod command stands for (change file mode bits). chmod changes the file mode (permission) of each given file, folder, script, etc.. according to mode asked for. There exist 3 types of permission on a file (folder or anything but to keep things simple we will be using file).

  # apt

  The Debian based apt command stands for (Advanced Package Tool). Apt is an advanced package manager for Debian based system (Ubuntu, Kubuntu, etc.), that automatically and intelligently search, install, update and resolves dependency of packages on Gnu/Linux system from command line.




 Switching From Windows to Nix or a Newbie to Linux – 20 Useful Commands for Linux Newbies, http://www.tecmint.com/useful-linux-commands-for-newbies/


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